WiFi is a series of wireless network protocols based on the IEEE 802.11 family of standards that are widely used for device networking and internet access, and enable neighboring digital devices to exchange data over radio waves. These are some of the most used computer networks in the world. Used worldwide in home and small office networks to connect desktops and laptops, tablets, smartphones, smart TVs, printers, and smart speakers together and to a WiFi router to connect them to the internet and to wireless access points in public places such as Libraries, low shops, hotels, and airports connect to provide Internet access to the general public for mobile devices.
WiFi is based on the IEEE 802 protocol family and is designed to work with its wired Ethernet counterpart. Compatible devices can connect to each other through wireless access points, as well as to wired devices and the Internet. Several protocol standards IEEE 802.11 define different versions of WiFi, with different radio technologies that dictate the radio bands, the maximum ranges and the achievable speeds. 2.4 gigahertz (120 mm) UHF and 5 gigahertz SHF (60 mm) radio bands are most commonly used for WiFi, and both bands are split into many channels. Channels can be shared by networks, but only one transmitter can transmit locally on a channel at a time.
WiFi wavebands generally have generally high absorption and are best for use with lines of sight. Many of the common obstacles such as walls, pillars, devices, etc, can greatly reduce the range, but this also helps to minimize interference between different networks in crowded environments. Hotspot often has a range of around 20 meters indoors, while some modern access points outdoors specify a range of up to 150 meters. The increased number of square kilometers (miles) made it possible to use many overlapping access points roaming between them. Over time, the speed and spectral efficiency of WiFi has increased. From 2019, some versions of short-range WiFi will run on suitable hardware and can reach speeds of more than 1 Gbit / s (gigabits per second) in the short-range.